May 29, 2008
Art nouveau style art glass
GP & J Baker Fabric: ‘nympheus’
Art deco card 1934
Cheap costume jewellery
Old postcards of South London
Clarice Cliff long stitch (to tide me over until I can actually afford some authentic Clarice Cliff pottery)
May 28, 2008
MATERIALS: standard silver
TECHNIQUES: wax carving, filing, sanding, polishing (actual casting performed by someone else)
TOOLS: various wax carving tools (rasp, ring sizer with cutting blade, some general tools that could be used for carving and sanding the wax), wheatsheaf ring gauge, hard wax, steel wool, wet and dry paper, half-round needle file, soft brush, buffer (tripoli mop and rouge mop), ultrasonic cleaner (+ tools for casting)
My ring model was formed from a round wax tube with an off-centre hole. My instructor had cut the tube into individual rings.
- Use a ring gauge to determine desired ring size (if the ring is for you you can just keep trying your finger until the ring is the desired size).
- Use a wax ring sizer with cutting blade to cut a hole to desired size.
- File or cut the wax ring to desired width and thickness and then use whatever tools necessary to carve the desired shape.
- Use a file and steel wool to get the ring as smooth as possible – it’s much easier to remove scratches in wax than it is to remove scratches in silver.
- Send away for casting (perhaps a future post on this process)
- File or saw any remaining ‘channels’ on the newly cast ring and then sand (file heavily scratched areas, if any, and sand, initially with a coarse paper, say 300-800 and then with a smooth paper (1000-1200).
- Polish using the tripoli mop. Clean using a soft brush and detergent and if desired result is achieved polish with the rouge mop (black caking may mean that you need to go back and do more tripoli polishing before continuing with the rouge).
- Clean off excess rouge using the ultrasonic cleaner.
- It’s very tricky to get scratches out of crevices but it’s still much easier to spend ages doing this with the wax ring than it is trying to get scratches out of the silver ring.
- My finished ring has numerous scratches on the inside because I was too scared to file/sand down the wax or silver ring too much, thus making the ring a size too big. I should have made the ring a little bit smaller to account for smoothing the inside of the ring. Alternatively I could have smeared some melted wax to fill the scratches.
- A solid silver ring is much much heavier than a wax ring! Every gram of wax will weigh 10.6 grams in silver (even more for gold!).
IF I HAD MORE TIME: I would have put some more thought into the design of the ring (it’s difficult to think of a design that’s carvable when put on the spot). I would have also spent more time carving to get a better shape and more time filing and sanding out scratches – firstly on the wax ring and then (if necessary) on the silver ring.
May 22, 2008
MATERIALS: brass sheet, brass wire, split ring
TECHNIQUES: piercing, sawing, filing, sanding, soldering (making a chain!)
TOOLS: letter template, double-sided tape, saw and blades (size 2), counterpunch, drill, flat file, needle files, wet and dry paper, rod for forming chain links, soldering tools, barrel polisher
- Use double sided tape to stick the letter template onto the brass.
- Counterpunch and then use a drill to pierce any compartments where you will need to gain access with the saw.
- Thread the saw through a pierced hole and saw along the edge of the template. Repeat with all of the other compartments and then saw around the outside of the template.
- File and sand the edges of the design.
- Form numerous jump rings by winding brass wire around a rod (the result is a ‘spring’) and then cut through the spring with a saw.
- Align the ends of a jump ring (use pliers to create tension) and Solder using a small piece of silver hard solder. Do the same with another jump ring. Link the soldered rings to a third jump ring and solder this shut using silver medium solder.
- Bend a short and thick piece of brass wire (to make a loop at the top of the keyring). File so that the wire ends fit snugly against the edge of the keyring. Solder on using fairly large pieces of silver hard solder. Connect the chain to the loop using a final jump ring, soldered using silver easy solder.
- If pickling gives the keyring a copper plating this can be removed using a soft brush, detergent and pumice and/or steel wool.
- Barrel polish and attach a split ring to the free end of the chain.
- It will take a lot of practice to get sawing technique correct.
- Make sure you have plenty of saw blades handy as they break often, especially when inexperienced.
- Size 2 is a good blade size for many sawing jobs.
IF I HAD MORE TIME: I would have taken more care when sawing and spent more time filing and sanding away teeth marks around the edges.
May 21, 2008
Found this great site which provides a nifty guide to enamelling for jewellery.
Some useful information on enamelling can also to be found on the Jewelry Lovers blog.
some enamelling techniques:
- Basse-Taille (Low Cut): Enamel (usually transparent) is fired onto a textured metal. Light reflected on the textured surfaces can create an interesting effect.
- Champlevé (Raised Plane): Enamel is fired into depressed areas of metal to form a level surface. Engraving or acid can be used to remove the metal afterwards.
- Cabochonné: Layering of translucent enamels to produce an imitation of a cabochon.
- Cloisonné: Fine (Cloisonné) wires are used to create cells which are filled with enamel.
- Grisaille: A build up of coats of white enamel forming interesting grey/white tones.
- On Glaze/Overglaze Colours: Oil- or water-based finely ground enamels that can be applied and fired onto a pre-enamelled surface.
- Plique à jour: A ‘stained glass’ effect where cells are constructed (like cloisonné) but the back is uncovered so that light can shine through.
- Sgraffito: a design is scratched into unfired enamel to expose metal or an enamel coat underneath.
Many awesome examples of enamelling can be found in art nouveau jewellery where vivid colours were used to depict nature in all its splendour. While a whole range of enamelling techniques were used, perhaps the most important technique was plique à jour – often used to create delicate insect wings and leaves. For some fine examples of enamelling in art nouveau jewellery refer to the work of Rene Lalique, Georges Fouquet, Louis Aucoc, and Etienne Tourette.
May 10, 2008
with hammer marks
MATERIALS: Standard silver sheet
TECHNIQUES: annealing, hammering/planishing, sawing, soldering, ring forming, ring resizing, sanding
TOOLS: triblet (ring mandrel), barrel polisher, hammer, saw and blades, soldering tools, mallet, wet and dry paper, scribe, vise, (ideally pendant drill), ring stretcher
This was made very quickly.
- Cut silver to desired width using a guillotine.
- Use a hammer to texture one side.
- Use a mallet on the sheet over a triblet to form a ring shape (perhaps a little smaller than the size that you want).
- Use scribe to mark where to cut through to get rid of the ends and saw as marked.
- Check size (cut off more if needed) and then ‘saw through’ the cut to make sure that it’s smooth for soldering.
- Solder using silver hard solder.
- Sand as necessary and use hammer marks to cover the solder seam.
- Resize if necessary.
- Barrel polish.
- Wide rings are very difficult to remove from one’s finger! Although in general you should make rings a little smaller than desired and stretch if necessary, with such a wide ring I should’ve probably made it a bit bigger. Actually, in hindsight I would not have made it so wide.
- Be careful when resizing – the solder seam can break. If you need to re-solder use a solder with a lower melting point.
IF I HAD MORE TIME: I would have done more work cleaning up the finished solder seam – I didn’t get any time to hammer the outside or sand/file the inside. I would have liked to have used a pendant drill to sand the inside of the ring.
May 7, 2008
slightly domed circular cufflinks with a
transparent blue enamel layer
MATERIALS: standard silver sheet, silver cufflink fittings, transparent blue enamel powder
TECHNIQUES: annealing, doming, soldering, enamelling, filing, sanding
- Cut metal sheet into 2 circles of desired size (using hole cutter).
- Anneal and gently dome each circle using a doming block.
- Sand the edges by moving in a figure-of-eight on emery/wet and dry paper.
- File the back of the cufflink fittings so that they will fit snugly onto the domes.
- Solder the fittings on using hard solder. When soldering make sure the barrels are ‘out’ (as they would be when wearing them) so that they don’t melt, and only attach tweezers to where the steel pin connects the two parts of the fitting to avoid bending the heated silver.
- Prepare the enamel. Crush the powder (or rock) in water using a mortar and pestle until it is the consistency of a fine icing – rinse numerous times, lastly with distilled water and place in a small container with a little distilled water covering it.
- Prepare the silver for enamelling by brushing with a glass fibre brush, detergent and water. The final rinse should be with distilled water (wear gloves to avoid getting glass fibres in you hands!).
- Use a fine art brush to dab on the enamel. Apply an even coating – not to thick or thin, too dry or wet. Blot excess water and place on top of the preheating kiln to dry out (until the enamel looks like frost crystals).
- Place the cufflinks on ceramic fibreboard and stilts and place in the kiln (I think around 900-1000 degrees, but perhaps this depends on the type of enamel). Check after a minute or so – it’s better to check to early and have to return the item to the kiln than it is over-fire. If the piece is still looking crystalline it probably needs more time, but if it looks kind of smooth and glassy (but perhaps a different colour to what you were expecting) then it’s probably ready to remove. Place the items on top of the kiln for a few minutes before moving them elsewhere so that they can cool down slowly.
- Pickle after enamelling but don’t leave in the pickle for too long as it can affect the colour.
- Use a diagrit to remove excess enamel from the edges.
- Barrel polish.
- The kiln is very hot and can melt silver so it’s best use a reasonably thick sheet. Also always use hard solder (or enamelling solder).
- Enamel can be re-fired (adding more enamel, cloisonné wires etc. as you go)
- Enamel is best used on a recessed area where it is protected. Before I had a chance to remove excess enamel from the edges of one my cufflinks, the enamel started flaking so I had to retouch and re-fire it.
- Colour results can be unpredictable. Luckily the light blue transparent enamel that I used turned out to be a lovely shade.
IF I HAD MORE TIME: I would have done some more sanding to make sure the backs were a bit smoother and tried to get a more evenly domed surface.
Hmmm. Must do some future posts on enamelling.
May 3, 2008
So I thought that for my first few posts I’d talk about the jewellery I made at evening classes at Central St Martins. Everything is a bit scratched and wonky (and the photos aren’t great), but it’s my first ever attempt at making jewellery and it was all a bit rushed, so I figure that’s okay. I’ve added a jewellery making glossary which covers some of the terms that will be used here.
domed and textured silver pendant on a snake chain
MATERIALS: standard silver sheet, silver snake chain, findings (silver jump ring, silver bolt ring, silver chain ends)
TECHNIQUES: annealing, roll printing, hammering/planishing, soldering, doming, filing, sanding, polishing findings
TOOLS: cutter and guillotine, hammer, rolling mill, cardboard, scalpel & cutting mat, textured fabric, doming block and punches, hammer, mallet, circle stencil, wet and dry paper, half-round needle file, soldering tools, buffer (rouge mop), ultrasonic cleaner, barrel polisher
PROCESS: I can’t remember the exact order of the process, but I think it went something like this:
- Anneal silver sheet and cut in half using a guillotine (one piece for each side of the pendant).
- Texture silver pieces. My design was a very simplified version of a stellate neuron: I cut out the shape in cardboard and also used some textured paper to give the surface an interesting appearance. The texture was applied by sandwiching the cardboard and fabric between the silver and a brass sheet and pushing the ‘sandwich’ through a rolling mill. The ‘nucleus’ of my design was achieved was achieved by making hammer marks with a small hammer.
- Cut pieces to desired shape. (I used a circular stencil to work out the approximate size of circle that I wanted for the pendant and cut each piece using a hole cutter).
- Re-anneal and then dome each piece on the doming block.
- Prepare the surfaces for soldering by running them across some emery or wet and dry paper in a figure of eight. Start filing holes (to thread the chain through). Do this now to provide a vent, to avoid explosion when soldering.
- Solder the two pieces together with silver hard solder.
- File and sand the edges so that they aren’t too sharp and finish filing holes for the chain to go through.
- Thread the chain through the pendant. (Ideally the holes would have been large enough to allow threading the chain through after the findings had be soldered on, but this wasn’t possible in this case.
- Solder on the findings using very small pieces of silver easy solder – first the chain ends then the bolt ring (no time to solder the jump ring so I just closed it using pliers but ideally I would have done this while soldering the ends on).
- Give the chain ends a quick polish on the rouge mop (a good way to hold the chain against the buffer is to place it on a piece of leather). Remove excess rouge with the ultrasonic cleaner.
- Barrel polish.
- A piece will rarely turn out the way that you envisage at the beginning but the results can still be very pleasing. For example, the textured surface of my pendant was completely different to what I expected, and initially I had not intended to thread the chain through the pendant but rather behind it using a finding (at the last minute I decided against this because I couldn’t be bothered with the extra soldering and it seemed like it would put the piece off balance in some way).
- Adding fine texture to a piece can result in a ‘frosty’ kind of appearance because of all the little crevices that can’t be reached by the polisher.
- Soldering findings to a snake chain can be tricky! The solder likes to run into the chain and make it solid. Luckily I started out with a very long chain because it took me three goes to get the soldering right and I had to cut a bit off of the ends each time I messed up.
IF I HAD MORE TIME: I would have soldered the jump ring.